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Eurovision Song Contest 2019

The Eurovision Song Contest 2019 was the 64th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, following Nettas win at the 2018 contest in Lisbon, Portugal, with the song "Toy". It was the third time Israel had hosted the contest, having previously done so in 1979 and 1999. However, this was the first time Israel hosted the contest outside of Jerusalem. Organised by the European Broadcasting Union and host broadcaster Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation, the contest was held at Expo Tel Aviv, and consisted of two semi-finals on 14 and 16 May, and the final on 18 May 2019. The three live shows were hosted by Erez Tal, Bar Refaeli, Assi Azar and Lucy Ayoub.
Forty-one countries took part in the contest; Bulgaria and Ukraine were absent. Bulgaria did not enter because members of its delegation had been moved to other projects. Ukraine had originally planned to participate in the contest but withdrew because of the controversy surrounding their national final.
The winner was the Netherlands with the song "Arcade", performed by Duncan Laurence who also wrote it with Joel Sjoo, Wouter Hardy and Will Knox. This was the Netherlands fifth victory in the contest, following their wins in 1957, 1959, 1969 and 1975. In a similar way to 2016, the overall winner won neither the jury vote, which was won by North Macedonia, nor the televote, which was won by Norway, with the Netherlands placing third and second respectively. Italy, Russia, Switzerland and Sweden rounded out the top five. Further down the table, North Macedonia and San Marino achieved their best results to date, finishing seventh and nineteenth, respectively. This was North Macedonias first Top 10 finish since joining the competition in 1998. Israel finished in 23rd place in the final, making it the fourth time since 2015 the host country ranked in the bottom five.
There was an error in the voting at the contest: a wrongful counting of the jury votes by the Belarusian delegation caused the televised results to be amended three days later. The discrepancy was not large enough to change the order of the originally announced top four in the final result, which combines the jury voting and televoting by the public, but this update saw North Macedonia as the new jury winner instead of Sweden as shown on TV; there were also minor changes in lower positions.
The EBU reported the contest had an audience of 182 million viewers in 40 European markets, which saw an increase by two percent in the 15–24 year old age range.

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1. Location
The 2019 contest took place in Israel for the third time, having been held there in 1979 and 1999, and followed the countrys victory at the 2018 edition with the song "Toy", performed by Netta Barzilai.

1.1. Location Bidding phase
After Israels victory in Lisbon, Portugal, in the 2018 contest, Netta Barzilai and Israels Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that the 2019 contest would be held in Jerusalem, but this was yet to be confirmed by the Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation IPBC/KAN and the European Broadcasting Union EBU. Israeli finance minister Moshe Kahlon also said in an interview the event would be held solely in Jerusalem and estimated its cost at 120 million Israeli shekels approximately €29 million. The mayor of Jerusalem, Nir Barkat, mentioned Jerusalem Arena and Teddy Stadium as possible venues to host the event. The municipality of Jerusalem had confirmed that because it lacked the seating capacity, the contest would not be held at the International Convention Centre, which had hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 1979 and 1999.
On 18 June 2018, Prime Minister Netanyahu said that Israel had committed to remaining in compliance with EBU rules regarding the constitution of member broadcasters, so as not to affect its hosting of Eurovision. The IPBCs establishment included a condition that news programming would be delegated later to a second public broadcasting entity. This violates EBU rules requiring member broadcasters to have their own internal news departments.
On 19 June 2018, Israel was officially confirmed as the host country, and on 24 June 2018, KAN formally opened the bidding process for cities interested in hosting the 2019 contest. Israeli minister Michael Oren, who is closely connected to Prime Minister Netanyahu, said that Jerusalem did not have the resources to host the contest on 28 July 2018, restating the common talking point that Tel Aviv was the more likely host.
Soon afterwards, reports surfaced of the government not providing the €12 million downpayment requested by KAN to cover hosting expenses and security. Following a tense back-and-forth between KAN and the government, a compromise between the two parties was reached on 29 July 2018 that would see KAN paying the €12 million to the EBU and the Finance Ministry covering expenses should complications arise. The Mayor of Tel Aviv announced the city would be willing to pay for the Convention Center itself, should it be chosen as the host city.
In the week of 27 August 2018, executive supervisor/scrutineer Jon Ola Sand led a handful of EBU delegates around Israel to scope out the potential venues in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv and to hear the bid from Eilat. On 30 August 2018, Sand said in an interview with KAN that Eilat was no longer in the running to host, leaving it between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. He added there was no serious discussion among members of the EBU about boycotting the event.
On 13 September 2018, the EBU announced Tel Aviv as the host city, with Expo Tel Aviv as the chosen venue for the 2019 contest.
Key: † Host venue ‡ Shortlisted venues

1.2. Location Other sites
The Eurovision Village was the official Eurovision Song Contest fan and sponsors area during the events week. There it was possible to watch performances by local artists, as well as the live shows broadcast from the main venue. Located at the Charles Clore Park in Tel Aviv, it was open from 12 to 18 May 2019.
The EuroClub was the venue for the official after-parties and private performances by contest participants. Unlike the Eurovision Village, access to the EuroClub was restricted to accredited fans, delegates, and press. It was located at Hangar 11 in Tel Aviv Port.
The "Orange Carpet" event, where the contestants and their delegations are presented before the accredited press and fans, took place at Habima Square in central Tel Aviv on 12 May 2019 at 19:00 IDT, followed by the Opening Ceremony at the Charles Bronfman Auditorium.

2.1. Format Visual design
The contests slogan, "Dare to Dream", was unveiled on 28 October 2018. The official logo and branding was unveiled on 8 January 2019; designed by Awesome Tel Aviv and Studio Adam Feinberg, it consists of layered triangles designed to resemble a star, reflecting "the stars of the future" coming to Tel Aviv.

2.2. Format Presenters
On 25 January 2019, KAN announced that four presenters would host the three shows: TV hosts Erez Tal who was also one of the Israeli commentators for the Eurovision Song Contest 2018 grand final and Assi Azar who work for the Israeli Channel 12, supermodel Bar Refaeli, and KAN host Lucy Ayoub, who was also the Israeli spokesperson at the 2018 contest. Tal and Refaeli were the main hosts, while Azar and Ayoub hosted the green room.

2.3. Format Semi-final allocation draw
The draw to determine the participating countries semi-finals took place on 28 January 2019 at 17:00 CET, at the Tel Aviv Museum of Art. The thirty-six semi-finalists had been allocated into six pots, based on historical voting patterns as calculated by the contests official televoting partner Digame. Drawing from different pots helped to reduce the chance of so-called neighbourly voting and increases suspense in the semi-finals. The draw also determined the semi-final the six automatic finalist countries would broadcast and vote in. The ceremony was hosted by contest presenters Assi Azar and Lucy Ayoub and included the passing of a Eurovision insignia from Lisbon host city of the previous contest to Tel Aviv.

2.4. Format Voting
On 30 March 2019 the EBU announced the presentation of the televoting result during the grand final would change for the first time since the current vote presentation system was introduced in 2016. The jury results presentation remained the same with a live spokesperson in each participating country revealing the top song from their national jury that earned 12 points. In a change from previous years the televoting result was revealed in the order of jury ranking, from the lowest to the highest.

2.5. Format Opening and interval acts
On 8 April 2019, it was confirmed that Madonna would perform two songs during the final. The EBU later revealed they would be "Future" featuring Quavo and "Like a Prayer" and a yet-to-be released song, "Dark Ballet". On 15 April 2019, the EBU released further information about the opening and interval acts. The first semi-final would be opened by Netta Barzilai, performing a new version of her winning song "Toy". The first semi-final would also feature Dana International with "Just the Way You Are". The second semi-final included Shalva Band with the song "A Million Dreams" and mentalist Lior Suchard. The Grand Final included performances from six former Eurovision participants. In the "Switch Song" interval act, Conchita Wurst performed "Heroes", Måns Zelmerlow performed "Fuego", Eleni Foureira performed "Dancing Lasha Tumbai", Verka Serduchka performed "Toy", and Gali Atari, together with the four above-mentioned artists, performed her winning song "Hallelujah". Netta Barzilai later performed her new single "Nana Banana". The opening of the show featured Netta Barzilai, Dana International with "Diva" and "Tel Aviv", Nadav Guedj with "Golden Boy" and Ilanit with "Ey Sham". Idan Raichel performed the song "Bo’ee – Come to Me" together with The Idan Raichel Project, while actress Gal Gadot also appeared in a video skit about Tel Aviv.

3. Participating countries
The EBU initially announced on 7 November 2018 that forty-two countries would participate in the contest, with Bulgaria opting not to participate for financial reasons.
Ukraine announced its withdrawal from the contest on 27 February 2019 reducing the number of participating countries to 41.
On 6 March 2019, the EBU confirmed North Macedonia would take part for the first time under its new name, instead of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia which had been used since the country first participated in 1998.

3.1. Participating countries Returning artists
The contest featured five representatives who had performed previously as lead vocalists for the same countries. Two of these returning artists participated in 2016 - Sergey Lazarev represented Russia with the song "You Are the Only One", winning the first semi-final and placing third in the final, while Serhat represented San Marino with the song "I Didnt Know", which placed 12th in the first semi-final. Joci Papai represented Hungary in 2017 with the song "Origo", placing eighth in the final. Tamara Todevska represented Macedonia now named North Macedonia in 2008, alongside Vrcak and Adrian, with the song "Let Me Love You", placing tenth in the second semi-final. She was also a backing vocalist in 2004 and 2014 for Tose Proeski and Tijana Dapcevic, respectively. Nevena Bozovic represented Serbia in 2013 as part of Moje 3, with the song "Ljubav je svuda", which placed eleventh in the first semi-final. She also represented the country in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2007 with the song "Pisi mi", which placed third.
In addition, the contest featured a former backing vocalist returning to represent his country for the first time - Jurij Veklenko provided backup vocals for Lithuanias representatives in 2013 and 2015 - and previous representatives coming back to provide supporting vocals for their own or another country. Mikheil Javakhishvili, Georgias representative in 2018 as part of Ethno-Jazz Band Iriao, returned as a backing vocalist for Oto Nemsadze. Mikel Hennet, who represented Spain in 2007 as part of DNash, returned as a backup singer for Miki. Stig Rasta, Estonias representative in 2015 alongside Elina Born, returned as a backing vocalist for Victor Crone. Mladen Lukic, who represented Serbia in 2018 as part of Balkanika, returned as a backing singer for Nevena Bozovic. Sahlene, who represented Estonia in 2002, returned as a backing vocalist for the United Kingdom. She also provided backing vocals in 1999 for her native country, Sweden, for Malta in 2000 and in 2016 for Australia.Jacques Houdek, who represented Croatia in 2017, returned as a backing vocalist for Roko. Emilie Satt, who represented France in 2018 as part of Madame Monsieur, returned as a backing singer for Bilal Hassani.Destiny Chukunyere, who won the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2015 for Malta, provided backing vocals for Michela.

3.2. Participating countries Semi-final 1
The first semi-final took place on 14 May 2019 at 22:00 IDT 21:00 CEST. Seventeen countries participated in the first semi-final. Those countries plus France, Israel and Spain voted in this semi-final. Ukraine was originally allocated to participate in the second half of the semi-final, but withdrew from the contest due to controversy over its national selection. The highlighted countries qualified for the final.

3.3. Participating countries Final
The final took place on 18 May 2019 at 22:00 IDT 21:00 CEST. Twenty-six countries participated in the final, with all 41 participating countries eligible to vote.

4. Scoreboard
12 points
Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points 12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting to the specified entrant.
Jury
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys professional jury in the first semi-final:
Televoting
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys televote in the first semi-final:
12 points
Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points 12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting to the specified entrant.
Jury
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys professional jury in the second semi-final:
Televoting
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys televote in the second semi-final:
12 points
Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points 12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting to the specified entrant.
Jury
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys professional jury in the final:
Televoting
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys televote in the final:

4.1. Scoreboard Belarusian jury dismissal and incorrect aggregated vote
The Belarusian jury was dismissed following the revelation of their votes in the first Semi-Final, which is contrary to the rules of the Eurovision Song Contest. To comply with the contests voting regulations, the EBU worked with its voting partner, Digame, to create a substitute aggregated result calculated based on the results of other countries with similar voting records, which was approved by voting monitor Ernst & Young, to determine the Belarusian jury votes for the Grand Final. In these results, Israel, which did not receive points from any other jury during the Grand Final, received 12 points from Belarus.
However, Twitter user euro_bruno noted on May 19 that it appeared an incorrect substitute Belarusian result was announced during the broadcast of the Grand Final four days earlier. The mistake was confirmed in a statement issued by the EBU three days later, on 22 May 2019. According to the statement, the EBU "discovered that due to a human error an incorrect aggregated result was used. This had no impact on the calculation of points derived from televoting across the 41 participating countries and the overall winner and Top 4 songs of the Contest remain unchanged. To respect both the artists and EBU Members which took part, to correct the final results in accordance with the rules."
The error, a reversal of the Belarusian aggregated votes, led to the bottom ten countries receiving points instead of the top ten. Malta, which had been incorrectly ranked last, would receive Belarus 12 jury points, and Israel would end up with no jury points. The corrected point totals also changed some rankings: Sweden finished fifth overall instead of Norway, Belarus finished 24th overall instead of Germany, and North Macedonia won the jury vote instead of Sweden.
The mistake made by the EBU and their voting partner was widely panned by the press. Dutch newspaper Algemeen Dagblad said the EBU had to present the new vote totals "blushing with shame", calling the situation "chaos". British newspaper Metro thought the EBU had "screwed up", while the Daily Mirror named the accidental reversal of the aggregated vote total a "scandalous blunder".
The corrected results have been used in all following scoreboards where applicable.

4.2. Scoreboard 12 points
Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points 12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting to the specified entrant.

4.3. Scoreboard Jury
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys professional jury in the first semi-final:

4.4. Scoreboard 12 points
Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points 12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting to the specified entrant.

4.5. Scoreboard Jury
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys professional jury in the second semi-final:

4.6. Scoreboard Televoting
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys televote in the second semi-final:

4.7. Scoreboard 12 points
Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points 12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting to the specified entrant.

4.8. Scoreboard Jury
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys professional jury in the final:

4.9. Scoreboard Televoting
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each countrys televote in the final:

5. Other countries
Eligibility for potential participation in the Eurovision Song Contest requires a national broadcaster with active EBU membership that will be able to broadcast the contest via the Eurovision network. The EBU issued an invitation to participate in the contest to all fifty-six of its active members. The Israeli Minister of Communications Ayoob Kara also invited countries from the Middle Eastern and North African region. With some Israel largely had tense relationships and others no diplomatic relations at all. Kara pointed out Tunisia and the Gulf states Saudi Arabia as well as Dubai and Abu Dhabi as part of the United Arab Emirates were invoted. Tunisia is eligible to participate but has not due to rules banning the promotion of Israeli content, while the Gulf states do not have national broadcasters with EBU membership.

5.1. Other countries Active EBU members
Turkey – Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım said in an interview that Turkey had no plans to return to the contest. On 4 August 2018 Ibrahim Eren, general manager of Turkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu TRT, said that at the moment the broadcaster was not considering returning to the contest for various reasons, including Conchita Wursts victory for Austria in 2014. Turkey last took part in 2012.
Slovakia – On 31 May 2018, the Slovak broadcaster Rozhlas a televizia Slovenska RTVS announced the country would not return to the contest in 2019 due to financial difficulties. Slovakia last took part in 2012.
Ukraine – On 27 February 2019 UA:PBC announced the withdrawal of the country from the contest, because of the controversy surrounding their national selection. But the channel still aired the show.
Monaco – On 17 August 2018, the Monegasque broadcaster Tele Monte Carlo TMC announced they would not return to the contest in 2019. Monaco last took part in 2006.
Bosnia and Herzegovina – On 25 May 2018, the Bosnian broadcaster, Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina BHRT, stated the country would not be allowed to return to the contest in 2019 until debt-related sanctions placed on them by the EBU are lifted. Bosnia and Herzegovina last took part in 2016.
Luxembourg – On 21 July 2018, the Luxembourgish broadcaster RTL Tele Letzebuerg RTL announced they would not return to the contest in 2019. Luxembourg last took part in 1993.
Bulgaria – Despite confirming their preliminary participation in the 2019 contest, Bulgarian National Television BNT announced on 13 October 2018 that many members of the delegation were moving onto other projects, and on 15 October 2018, BNT announced that they were not entering into the 2019 contest because of financial difficulties.
Andorra – Despite being absent for 10 years, local media reported that Ràdio i Televisio dAndorra RTVA was still interested in returning to the contest, but the principalitys failure to make the final along with the cost was discouraging the broadcaster from participating. For a return to take place, RTVA would need funding from the Andorran Government. On 19 May 2018, Andorra confirmed they would not return in 2019.

5.2. Other countries Associate EBU members
Kazakhstan – On 22 December 2017, the Ministry of Culture and Sport claimed that Channel 31 had finalised negotiations with the EBU, allowing Kazakhstan to debut in 2019; however, on 23 December 2017, the EBU told Esctoday that "Channel 31 Kazakhstan has indeed expressed interest in becoming a member of the EBU and hence participate in the Eurovision Song Contest. However, since Channel 31 is outside the European Broadcasting Area and is also not a member of the Council of Europe, it is not eligible to become an active member of the EBU." On 25 July 2018, it was announced that Kazakhstan will participate in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018, thus making a debut in 2019 possible. On 30 July 2018, the EBU stated that the decision to invite Kazakhstan was made solely by the Junior Eurovision reference group, and there were no current plans to invite associate members other than Australia. On 22 November 2018, Jon Ola Sand said in a press conference that "we need to discuss if we can invite our associate member Kazakhstan to take part in adult ESC in the future, but this is part of a broader discussion in the EBU and I hope we can get back to you on this issue later." However, he later clarified that Kazakhstan would not have an entry in the 2019 edition.

5.3. Other countries Non-EBU members
Liechtenstein – On 4 November 2017, 1 Furstentum Liechtenstein Television 1 FL TV, the national broadcaster of the Principality of Liechtenstein, confirmed that the country were planning a debut in the 2019 contest, and that they were applying for EBU membership and are "in process of complying all requirements". They also reiterated their intention to select the participant through a national selection process in the form of Liechtenstein Music Contest "open to any form of music". However, on 20 July 2018, the European Broadcasting Union EBU stated that 1 FL TV had not applied for EBU membership. On 26 July 2018, 1 FL TV confirmed that Liechtenstein would not debut at the Eurovision Song Contest 2019 due to the sudden death of the broadcasters director, Peter Kolbel.
Kosovo – In June 2018, RTK general director Mentor Shala said that they were pushing for full membership to still be able to take part in the 2019 contest. However, in December 2018, RTKs membership vote was delayed until June 2019.

6. Broadcasters, commentators and spokespersons
The European Broadcasting Union provided international live streams of both semi-finals and the grand final through their official YouTube channel with no commentary. The live streams were geo-blocked to viewers in Bolivia, Canada, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Uruguay, United States and Venezuela due to "rights limitations."
Spokespersons
The spokespersons announced the 12-point score from their respective countrys national jury in the following order:
Broadcasters and commentators
Countries may add commentary from commentators working on-location or remotely at the broadcaster. Commentators can add insight to the participating entries and the provision of voting information.

7.1. Incidents Religious requests
On 14 May 2018, Yaakov Litzman, leader of the ultra-Orthodox party United Torah Judaism and Israels former Minister of Health, drafted a letter to the Ministers of Tourism, Communications, and Culture and Sports, in which he requested the event not violate religious laws: "In the name of hundreds of thousands of Jewish citizens from all the populations and communities for whom Shabbat the holy sabbathobservance is close to their hearts, I appeal to you, already at this early stage, before production and all the other details of the event has begun, to be strict inside of us", saying "they think we are not aware of their crimes. We know, but were just not ready to act". This was interpreted as a reference to the conflict. During "Future" two dancers - one wearing an Israeli the second a Palestine flag on the back of their costumes - were seen holding each other when guest vocalist Quavo sang the lyrics: "Not everyone is coming to the future, not everyone is learning from the past". Madonna said the use of Israeli and Palestinian flags was not a pro-Palestine demonstration, but a call for unity and peace.
While receiving their points from the televotes, members of the Icelandic entry Hatari were seen showing banners that included the Palestinian flag. There had previously been concerns that the self-described anti-capitalist group would use their performance to protest the Israeli occupation of Palestine, and the band had previously received warnings from the EBU about statements they had made prior to the contest. After the contest, the EBU said that "the consequences of this action will be discussed by the Reference Group the Contests executive board after the Contest". Hatari subsequently announced a collaboration with Palestinian artist Bashar Murad for their next single.

8. Other awards
In addition to the main winners trophy, the Marcel Bezençon Awards and the Barbara Dex Award were contested during the 2019 Eurovision Song Contest. The OGAE French: Organisation Generale des Amateurs de lEurovision, English: General Organisation of Eurovision Fans) voting poll also took place before the contest.

8.1. Other awards Marcel Bezençon Awards
The Marcel Bezençon Awards were first handed out during the 2002 contest in Tallinn, Estonia, honouring the best competing songs in the final. Founded by Christer Bjorkman Swedens representative in the 1992 contest and the current Head of Delegation for Sweden and Richard Herrey a member of the Herreys and the Eurovision Song Contest 1984 winner from Sweden, the awards are named after the creator of the annual competition, Marcel Bezençon. The awards are divided into three categories: Press Award, Artistic Award, and Composer Award. The winners are revealed shortly before the Eurovision final.

8.2. Other awards OGAE
OGAE is an international organisation founded in 1984 in Savonlinna, Finland by Jari-Pekka Koikkalainen. It consists of a network of over 40 Eurovision Song Contest fan clubs across Europe and beyond, and is a non-governmental, non-political, and non-profit company. In what has become an annual tradition for the OGAE fan clubs, a voting poll took place before the main Eurovision Song Contest allowing members from over 40 clubs to vote for their favourite songs in the contest. The top five overall results, after all of the votes had been cast are shown below.

8.3. Other awards Barbara Dex Award
The Barbara Dex Award is a fan award originally awarded by House of Eurovision from 1997 to 2016, and since 2017 by songfestival.be. This is a humorous award given to the worst dressed artist in the contest each year. It was named after the Belgian artist, Barbara Dex, who came last in the 1993 contest, in which she wore her own self-designed dress.

9. Official album
Eurovision Song Contest: Tel Aviv 2019 is the official compilation album of the contest, put together by the European Broadcasting Union and released by Universal Music Group digitally on 12 April 2019 and physically on 26 April 2019. The album features all 41 entries including the semi-finalists that failed to qualify for the final.

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  • North Macedonia participated in the 2019 Eurovision Song Contest in Tel Aviv, Israel with the song Proud composed by Darko Dimitrov, Robert Bilbilov
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  • Montenegro has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 11 times. The country debuted in 2007. Previously it had participated as part of Yugoslavia
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  • United Kingdom has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 62 times. They first participated in the second contest in 1957. The UK has entered every year
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  • Cyprus has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 36 times since making its debut in 1981. Cyprus first entry was the group Island, who finished
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  • Turkey has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 34 times since 1975. Since the introduction of the semi - finals in 2004, the only year that Turkey
  • France has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 62 times since its debut at the first contest in 1956. France is one of only seven countries to